hu3CEAE6 (23andMe) - GET-Evidence variant report

Variant report for hu3CEAE6 (23andMe)

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VariantClinical
Importance
ImpactAllele
freq
Summary
1DRD2-S311CLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Homozygous
0.0168247Various studies report this variant in a dopamine receptor is associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Assuming an average 1% chance of schizophrenia in the general population, combined data suggests carriers of this variant have a risk of 1.4% (0.4% increased risk above average).1
2COL4A1-Q1334HLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.324689This common variant has been associated with arterial stiffness and, in Japanese, a small increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI, a.k.a. heart attack). This last observation supported a dominant effect for this variant and, assuming a lifetime risk of 15% for MI, we estimate carriers have an additional risk of 0.5-3%.1
3MTRR-I49MLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.451199This common variant (HapMap allele frequency of 31.3%) in a protein involved in folate (B9) and cobalamin (B12) metabolism and is often reported as "MTRR I22M" (an alternative transcript position). Mothers homozygous for this variant are associated with having around a increased chance of a child with Down syndrome (risk of 0.4%, average risk in population is 0.25%). Notably, age plays a far larger role in the rate of Down syndrome (risk is 4.5% for a mother 45-years-of-age), and it is unknown how this variant may combine with the effect of age. There are conflicting reports associating this variant with incidence of neural tube defects, possibly when combined with MTHFR A222V.1
4MBL2-G54DLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.103923This variant is associated with mannose binding protein deficiency which leads to impaired complement system immune response to mannose-rich pathogens. Patients homozygous for this allele or compound heterozygous are likely to have increased susceptibility to infection, but Hellemann et al. report heterosis for intensive care outcomes in heterozygous subjects. The wild-type version of this gene is known as variant allele A, while this is called variant allele B. See R52C (variant D) and G57E (variant C).1
5MBL2-R52CLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.048615This variant is associated with mannose binding protein deficiency which leads to impaired complement system immune response to mannose-rich pathogens. Patients homozygous for this allele or compound heterozygous are likely to have increased susceptibility to infection, but Hellemann et al. report heterosis for intensive care outcomes in heterozygous subjects. The wild-type version of this gene is known as variant allele A, while this is called variant allele D. See G54D (variant B) and G57E (variant C).1
6RNASEL-R462QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.278026Associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in individuals who already have a family history of prostate cancer, but studies have been unable to replicate this finding in sporadic (non-familial) prostate cancer cases.1
7ELAC2-S217LLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.273471Reported to be associated with increased susceptibility to prostate cancer, but later studies weaken the hypothesis. Xu et al.'s meta-analysis concludes that there is a small but significant increased risk (OR = 1.13). Assuming a lifetime risk of 16% for prostate cancer we calculate this leads to an increased risk of ~1.5% (17.5% total).1
8SP110-L425SLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.863357This variant is associated with a slightly increased risk of tuberculosis. It is unclear whether it is itself causal, or in linkage disequilibrium with some other causal variant that has a stronger effect.1
9WFS1-R611HLowUncertainUncertain not reviewed

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.400446This nonsynonymous SNP is associated with Wolfram Syndrome (known as DIDMOAD), which is characterized by early-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness) and to adult Type Two Diabetes Mellitus. The WFS1 gene maps to chromosome 4p16.3. The variant has been shown to be statistically associated with type II diabetes in six UK studies and one study of Ashkenazi Jews (Sandhu, M., et al., Minton et al.).1
10TP53-P72RLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.627743This is a common variant was first reported as a polymorphism. It has since had mixed associations with cancer: Storey et al. conclude a 7x *increased* risk of HPV cancer for homozygotes vs hets, but Jones et al. find a 1.98x *decreased* risk for colorectal cancer. This variant may have significant impact on particular cancers, but it is unclear what effect it has on the overall burden of cancer.1
11H6PD-R453QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.308886This common variant may have a small pathogenic effect by contributing to cortisone reductase deficiency (a rare abnormality) when homozygous and combined with a serious pathogenic variant. The same authors have tested and ruled out a contribution to polycystic ovary syndrome (similar phenotype, more common disease).1
12CYP2C9-R144CModerateWell-establishedWell-established pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0970982This variant, also called CYP2C9*2, is a pharmacogenetic variant that modulates sensitivity for Warfarin (due to reduced metabolism). This variant is associated with Caucasians. The FDA has approved reduced recommended Warfarin dosage based on the presence of this variant.1
13FUT2-W154XModerateWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Homozygous
0.490519This recessive protective variant confers resistance to norovirus (which causes stomach flu). 20% of Caucasians and Africans are homozygous for this variant and are "non-secretors": they do not express ABO blood type antigens in their saliva or mucosal surfaces. Most strains of norovirus bind to these antigens in the gut, and so this non-secretor status confers almost total resistantance to most types of norovirus. There are notable exceptions, some strains of norovirus bind a different target and are equally infectious for secretors and non-secretors.1
14NPC1-H215RLowLikelyLikely protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.295687This variant is associated with a reduced risk of obesity, with an additive effect of -0.084 BMI per allele (an average of 0.54 pounds less, per allele, in a 5'6" individual). 1
15ABCG5-R50CLowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0684142This variant has a mild protective effect on blood cholesterol. It is associated with slightly lower total and LDL cholesterol levels.1
16KCNJ11-K23ELowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Homozygous
0.738148This variant is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this variant has additive effects, or acts in a dominant or recessive manner. Assuming diabetes has a lifetime risk of 36%, we estimate a decreased risk of around 1-2% per copy of this variant.1
17IL7R-T244ILowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.210169The reference genome variant for this allele has been associated with a slight increased risk of multiple sclerosis. Thus, this variant can be treated as a "protective" variant -- carriers of this variant are slightly less likely to have MS. Because the disease is rare and the effect of this variant is not very strong, the absolute decreased risk for carriers of this variant is less than .05% (less than 1 in 2000).1
18BRCA2-T1915MLowUncertainUncertain protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0205429Serrano-Fernández et al. found this variant to be associated with a modest (OR = 1.61) but significant (P = 0.0007) reduction in breast cancer risk. 1
19ADA-D8NLowLikelyLikely benign

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.0295359This common variant is reported to reduce adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. It has been associated with an increased tendency for non-REM sleep -- more slow wave sleep, less nocturnal wakings, and a stronger negative impact of sleep deprivation. A role for this gene and variant was previously proposed for autism susceptibility, but this is controversial and was not replicated by later studies.1
20LOXL1-R141LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.255899Associated with exfoliative glaucoma & syndrome (XFG & XFS) in various populations, but with contradicting results (protective in Caucasians, pathogenic in Japanese). Based on this it seems the variation itself -- although it affects protein structure -- is not itself causing disease. Instead it is likely associated with other nearby causal variants. As such, it is evaluated as benign by GET-Evidence (which focuses on reporting causal variants). See detailed variant report for disease risk associations.1
21TAS2R38-I296VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.463376This variant is associated with "taster" status of PTC, along with 49P and 262A. Due to linkage disequilibrium, the independent effects of positions 296 and 262 is unclear. The presence of 49P confers taster status in a dominant fashion, but in the absence of 49P, the presence of 262A/296V is still positively associated with tasting PTC.1
22TAS2R38-A49PLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.431121This variant is strongly associated with causing the "taster" phenotype of phenylthiocarbamine (PTC) in a dominant manner.1
23TCIRG1-R56WLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0441778Probably benign. One publication implicates the variant in causing osteopetrosis, but this is contradicted by the relatively high allele frequency for the variant in Caucasians (5%, 1 in 400 homozygous) while that disease is extremely rare (1 in 250,000).1
24PCCA-I475VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0377394Reported as a polymorphism, tentatively presumed benign.1
25PCSK9-G670ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.888269This variant is likely benign. 1
26FANCA-S1088FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0584681Probably benign. One report hypothesized this variant causing Fanconi Anemia, but the allele frequency (3-7%) is high enough to contradict a highly penetrant pathogenic effect. Later authors have concluded this is a polymorphism, not pathogenic.1
27DSPP-R68WLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.143045Probably benign. One report linked this to causing dentinogenesis Imperfecta type II in a large Swedish family, but subsequent publications have observed this is a common variant and conclude it is a nonpathogenic polymorphism.1
28APOB-Y1422CLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.999628This position is almost certainly an error in the HG18 reference sequence. 1
29PKP2-L366PLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.221231This variant is a benign polymorphism. 1
30RP1-N985YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.348671Probably benign. One report linked this variant to high triglycerides, but a later paper found a nearby SNP with similar association and suggests that both findings are caused by linkage to an undiscovered causal variant.1
31PTCH1-P1315LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.29631Common polymorphism, presumed benign.1
32SLC45A2-L374FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.691764Pigmentation allele for non-black hair, and consequently, possible increased susceptibility to malignant melanoma.1
VariantPrioritization scoreAllele
freq
Num of
articles
Zygosity and Prioritization Score Reasons

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"GENE" or "GENE A123C":

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