hu5FCE15 - GET-Evidence variant report

Variant report for hu5FCE15

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VariantClinical
Importance
ImpactAllele
freq
Summary
1SERPINA1-E366KHighWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0117122This is also called the "Pi Z" or "Z" allele. When homozygous (acting in a recessive manner) this variant is the major cause of severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (95% of cases) which often leads to emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease in adults and children. Heterozygosity for this variant may also be associated with increased rate of lung or liver problems, especially when combined with another variant with reduced function (compound heterozygous).1
2C3-R102GModerateLikelyLikely pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.152073This variant (also called C3F) is common in Europeans (10.2% allele frequency), and is associated with age-related macular degeneration. In the US, 1.5% of adults over 40 have the disease, but the incidence increases strongly with age (>15% in women over 80). Assuming an average lifetime risk of ~10%, heterozygous individuals have a ~13% risk and homozygous have ~20%.1
3FLG-S761ShiftModerateUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.00793651Based on other severe variants in the same gene, this variant is likely to cause ichthyosis vulgaris when homozygous or compound heterozygous with another severe variant. Some authors report the variant has incomplete dominance, with heterozygotes generally having a very mild phenotype: some palmar hyperlinearity, keratosis pilaris and, in some cases fine scale.1
4PPARG-P12AModerateUncertainUncertain not reviewed

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.08867821
5COL4A1-Q1334HLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Homozygous
0.324689This common variant has been associated with arterial stiffness and, in Japanese, a small increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI, a.k.a. heart attack). This last observation supported a dominant effect for this variant and, assuming a lifetime risk of 15% for MI, we estimate carriers have an additional risk of 0.5-3%.1
6PSEN2-S130LLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.000836586Occasional observations report this in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and other variants in this gene cause early-onset AD. One group speculates an association with dilated cardiomyopathy. However, a functional study found no abnormal behavior (Walker et al.) and none of these studies showed statistically significant associations of the variant with either of these diseases.1
7WFS1-R611HLowUncertainUncertain not reviewed

Recessive, Homozygous
0.400446This nonsynonymous SNP is associated with Wolfram Syndrome (known as DIDMOAD), which is characterized by early-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness) and to adult Type Two Diabetes Mellitus. The WFS1 gene maps to chromosome 4p16.3. The variant has been shown to be statistically associated with type II diabetes in six UK studies and one study of Ashkenazi Jews (Sandhu, M., et al., Minton et al.).1
8ELAC2-S217LLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.273471Reported to be associated with increased susceptibility to prostate cancer, but later studies weaken the hypothesis. Xu et al.'s meta-analysis concludes that there is a small but significant increased risk (OR = 1.13). Assuming a lifetime risk of 16% for prostate cancer we calculate this leads to an increased risk of ~1.5% (17.5% total).1
9TLR5-R392XLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0439673This variant is believed to impair the ability to generate an immune response to the flagella of the bacteria. It is weakly associated with an increased incidence of Legionnaires' Disease, p = 0.085, increased lifetime risk of disease ~0.88% (about twice average). The variant is also weakly associated with a reduced incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus, p = 0.165.1
10TP53-P72RLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.627743This is a common variant was first reported as a polymorphism. It has since had mixed associations with cancer: Storey et al. conclude a 7x *increased* risk of HPV cancer for homozygotes vs hets, but Jones et al. find a 1.98x *decreased* risk for colorectal cancer. This variant may have significant impact on particular cancers, but it is unclear what effect it has on the overall burden of cancer.1
11CLEC7A-Y238XLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0632088This variant has been found to impair homan mucosal antifungal defense and was implicated in vulvovaginal candidiasis and mucocutaneous infections in a Dutch family.1
12H6PD-R453QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.308886This common variant may have a small pathogenic effect by contributing to cortisone reductase deficiency (a rare abnormality) when homozygous and combined with a serious pathogenic variant. The same authors have tested and ruled out a contribution to polycystic ovary syndrome (similar phenotype, more common disease).1
13SP110-L425SLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.863357This variant is associated with a slightly increased risk of tuberculosis. It is unclear whether it is itself causal, or in linkage disequilibrium with some other causal variant that has a stronger effect.1
14DPYD-M166VHighLikelyLikely pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0778955Associated with DPYD deficiency and poor prognosis for chemotherapy w/ 5-flurorouracil. 1
15CYP2C9-R144CModerateWell-establishedWell-established pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0970982This variant, also called CYP2C9*2, is a pharmacogenetic variant that modulates sensitivity for Warfarin (due to reduced metabolism). This variant is associated with Caucasians. The FDA has approved reduced recommended Warfarin dosage based on the presence of this variant.1
16ABCC6-R1268QLowUncertainUncertain pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.218907This common polymorphism appears to not have a significant phenotypic impact. A few studies report weak but significant associations with plasma lipids (in Inuits) and thalidomide toxicity.1
17FUT2-W154XModerateWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.490519This recessive protective variant confers resistance to norovirus (which causes stomach flu). 20% of Caucasians and Africans are homozygous for this variant and are "non-secretors": they do not express ABO blood type antigens in their saliva or mucosal surfaces. Most strains of norovirus bind to these antigens in the gut, and so this non-secretor status confers almost total resistantance to most types of norovirus. There are notable exceptions, some strains of norovirus bind a different target and are equally infectious for secretors and non-secretors.1
18CCR5-S185ShiftLowWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.047619Also known as CCR5-delta32, this variant is associated with resistance to many strains of HIV (but not all strains, only strains that use target the CCR5 protein). Heterozygotes are reported to have slower HIV progression, and homozygotes are very resistant to being infected by these strains.1
19NPC1-H215RLowLikelyLikely protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.295687This variant is associated with a reduced risk of obesity, with an additive effect of -0.084 BMI per allele (an average of 0.54 pounds less, per allele, in a 5'6" individual). 1
20CFH-V62ILowLikelyLikely protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.391616Associated with a decreased risk for age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Homozygotes for this have a 4-5% decreased attributable risk (3-4% vs. average 8% risk), heterozygotes have slightly lower than average risk (7%). Non-carriers have an increased risk (12-13%). ARMD impairs sharp vision as age progresses. While there is no cure, treatment can slow progression of the disease and environmental factors (smoking and obesity) contribute to higher risk.1
21KCNJ11-K23ELowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Homozygous
0.738148This variant is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this variant has additive effects, or acts in a dominant or recessive manner. Assuming diabetes has a lifetime risk of 36%, we estimate a decreased risk of around 1-2% per copy of this variant.1
22LIG4-A3VLowUncertainUncertain protective

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.035843One report has associated this with a decreased risk of multiple myeloma.1
23DTNBP1-P272SLowUncertainUncertain protective

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0351366Possibly a slight protective effect against colorectal cancer if homozygous.1
24PMS2-P470SLowLikelyLikely benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.374884Benign, common variant.1
25COL6A3-D2831HLowLikelyLikely benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0678565Probably benign, reported by Pan et al. as a presumed-nonpathogenic variant in the gene.1
26OCA2-R419QLowLikelyLikely benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0565161This variant is associated with eye color, as is OCA2 R305W. Individuals with this variant are reported to be more likely to have green/hazel eyes as opposed to blue/gray eyes. Other variants in this gene are associated with oculocutaneous albinism (albinism which involves skin and eyes).1
27CACNA1S-L458HLowLikelyLikely benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.27282Common polymorphism1
28GUCY2D-A52SLowUncertainUncertain benign

Recessive, Homozygous
0.21016One publication suggested that this variant possibly causes Leber's congenital amaurosis in a recessive manner, but the frequency data (36% in 1000 genomes) contradicts any significant pathogenic effect.1
29LOXL1-R141LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.255899Associated with exfoliative glaucoma & syndrome (XFG & XFS) in various populations, but with contradicting results (protective in Caucasians, pathogenic in Japanese). Based on this it seems the variation itself -- although it affects protein structure -- is not itself causing disease. Instead it is likely associated with other nearby causal variants. As such, it is evaluated as benign by GET-Evidence (which focuses on reporting causal variants). See detailed variant report for disease risk associations.1
30DYNC2H1-Q304LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.0484135Presumed benign.1
31ERCC6-R1230PLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0695297Probably benign.1
32TYR-S192YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.270682This variant is reported to affect skin pigmentation. It is associated with lighter skin in South Asians (OR 4-5) and with a lack of freckles in Europeans (OR 1.3).1
33APOB-Y1422CLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.999628This position is almost certainly an error in the HG18 reference sequence. 1
34CASP8-M1TLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0310451Probably benign. Although start codons can be extremely disruptive and this gene is implicated in a rare disease (autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome), the allele frequency for this variant (2-3%) is high enough to contradict such a strong pathogenic effect. This may be because the gene has many other transcripts that do not include this position as exonic.1
35SLC45A2-L374FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.691764Pigmentation allele for non-black hair, and consequently, possible increased susceptibility to malignant melanoma.1
36PHYH-P29SLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.155326Probably benign. This variant was implicated as causing Refsum Disease in a recessive manner, but a subsequent publication noted that all instances were linked with other explanatory mutations. The high allele frequency of this variant in the population (7-13%) contradicts a pathogenic hypothesis.1
37PCSK9-G670ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.888269This variant is likely benign. 1
38ABCC11-G180RLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0976947This variant is associated with dry type ear wax (a benign trait) in a recessive manner.1
39MAPT-R370WLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.155549Probably benign.1
40PTCH1-P1315LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.29631Common polymorphism, presumed benign.1
41RAPSN-R58CLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0778026Reported as non-pathogenic polymorphism. 1
42F5-M413TLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0580963Presumed benign. This variant is not particularly rare and has not been reported to cause disease.1
43HR-T1022ALowUncertainUncertain benign

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0969511Probably benign. One study implicated it in causing alopecia universalis, but a later report noted the variant has an allele frequency inconsistent with the rarity of that disease.1
44RP1-N985YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.348671Probably benign. One report linked this variant to high triglycerides, but a later paper found a nearby SNP with similar association and suggests that both findings are caused by linkage to an undiscovered causal variant.1
45F5-D2222GLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0448968Other mutations in this gene are associated with Factor 5 deficiency. There is no literature implicating this variant, however, and it is fairly common in the population (3.8% in HapMap), and so it is currently labeled as benign.1
VariantPrioritization scoreAllele
freq
Num of
articles
Zygosity and Prioritization Score Reasons

Gene search

"GENE" or "GENE A123C":

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