huEF956A (23andme) - GET-Evidence variant report

Variant report for huEF956A (23andme)

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VariantClinical
Importance
ImpactAllele
freq
Summary
1SERPINA1-E288VLowWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0304889This variant represents the PiS variant in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency where a homozygous individual has 60% enzymatic activity. This variant alone is unlikely to much effect, but 3-4% of heterozygotes are compound heterozygous with the more severe PiZ variant, which is associated with an increased risk of emphysema and COPD.1
2HFE-C282YLowWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0494516This variant is associated with hereditary haemochromatosis, 80% of patients with that disease are homozygous for this variant. However, the penetrance is low, in Beutler et al. they note that only 1 of their 158 homozygotes met criteria for diagnosis with the condition.1
3MBL2-G54DLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.103923This variant is associated with mannose binding protein deficiency which leads to impaired complement system immune response to mannose-rich pathogens. Patients homozygous for this allele or compound heterozygous are likely to have increased susceptibility to infection, but Hellemann et al. report heterosis for intensive care outcomes in heterozygous subjects. The wild-type version of this gene is known as variant allele A, while this is called variant allele B. See R52C (variant D) and G57E (variant C).1
4MTRR-I49MLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.451199This common variant (HapMap allele frequency of 31.3%) in a protein involved in folate (B9) and cobalamin (B12) metabolism and is often reported as "MTRR I22M" (an alternative transcript position). Mothers homozygous for this variant are associated with having around a increased chance of a child with Down syndrome (risk of 0.4%, average risk in population is 0.25%). Notably, age plays a far larger role in the rate of Down syndrome (risk is 4.5% for a mother 45-years-of-age), and it is unknown how this variant may combine with the effect of age. There are conflicting reports associating this variant with incidence of neural tube defects, possibly when combined with MTHFR A222V.1
5TLR5-R392XLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0439673This variant is believed to impair the ability to generate an immune response to the flagella of the bacteria. It is weakly associated with an increased incidence of Legionnaires' Disease, p = 0.085, increased lifetime risk of disease ~0.88% (about twice average). The variant is also weakly associated with a reduced incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus, p = 0.165.1
6ATM-S49CLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.00995349May be associated with a small increased risk of breast cancer.1
7RNASEL-R462QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.278026Associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in individuals who already have a family history of prostate cancer, but studies have been unable to replicate this finding in sporadic (non-familial) prostate cancer cases.1
8HFE-H63DLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.109965There have been some hypotheses that this variant contributes to causing hereditary hemochromatosis, possibly as a compound heterozygote, but some others treat it as a polymorphism. Cys282Tyr is the classic causal variant and itself has very low penetrance. Mouse studies indicates this variant has a similar but weaker effect; if it has any effect at all its penetrance may be quite low and/or require modifier alleles.1
9H6PD-R453QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.308886This common variant may have a small pathogenic effect by contributing to cortisone reductase deficiency (a rare abnormality) when homozygous and combined with a serious pathogenic variant. The same authors have tested and ruled out a contribution to polycystic ovary syndrome (similar phenotype, more common disease).1
10ERCC6-R1213GLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.196877When homozygous, this variant may cause Cockayne Syndrome, which is a severe autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by abnormal early growth and development, abnormal sensitivity to sunlight, and premature aging. Cockayne Syndrome Type I and Type II lead to death in early childhood. Several other variants in the ERCC6 gene are linked to Cockayne Syndrome. This variant may also be linked to age-related macular degeneration like other ERCC6 variants, and has been linked to colorectal cancer in one study. 1
11TP53-P72RLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.627743This is a common variant was first reported as a polymorphism. It has since had mixed associations with cancer: Storey et al. conclude a 7x *increased* risk of HPV cancer for homozygotes vs hets, but Jones et al. find a 1.98x *decreased* risk for colorectal cancer. This variant may have significant impact on particular cancers, but it is unclear what effect it has on the overall burden of cancer.1
12WFS1-R611HLowUncertainUncertain not reviewed

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.400446This nonsynonymous SNP is associated with Wolfram Syndrome (known as DIDMOAD), which is characterized by early-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness) and to adult Type Two Diabetes Mellitus. The WFS1 gene maps to chromosome 4p16.3. The variant has been shown to be statistically associated with type II diabetes in six UK studies and one study of Ashkenazi Jews (Sandhu, M., et al., Minton et al.).1
13FUT2-W154XModerateWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.490519This recessive protective variant confers resistance to norovirus (which causes stomach flu). 20% of Caucasians and Africans are homozygous for this variant and are "non-secretors": they do not express ABO blood type antigens in their saliva or mucosal surfaces. Most strains of norovirus bind to these antigens in the gut, and so this non-secretor status confers almost total resistantance to most types of norovirus. There are notable exceptions, some strains of norovirus bind a different target and are equally infectious for secretors and non-secretors.1
14CFH-V62ILowLikelyLikely protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.391616Associated with a decreased risk for age related macular degeneration (ARMD). Homozygotes for this have a 4-5% decreased attributable risk (3-4% vs. average 8% risk), heterozygotes have slightly lower than average risk (7%). Non-carriers have an increased risk (12-13%). ARMD impairs sharp vision as age progresses. While there is no cure, treatment can slow progression of the disease and environmental factors (smoking and obesity) contribute to higher risk.1
15NPC1-H215RLowLikelyLikely protective

Complex/Other, Homozygous
0.295687This variant is associated with a reduced risk of obesity, with an additive effect of -0.084 BMI per allele (an average of 0.54 pounds less, per allele, in a 5'6" individual). 1
16KCNJ11-K23ELowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Homozygous
0.738148This variant is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this variant has additive effects, or acts in a dominant or recessive manner. Assuming diabetes has a lifetime risk of 36%, we estimate a decreased risk of around 1-2% per copy of this variant.1
17ARSA-N350SLowWell-establishedWell-established benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.183199This common variant (HapMap 24.1% allele frequency) causes a loss of a glycosylation site (affecting the size of the protein when studied with gel electrophoresis) but does not affect enzyme activity or stability.1
18OPTN-R545QLowUncertainUncertain benign

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.000278914Originally, the variant was believed to be associated with adult-onset primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) after it was found in three individuals in a 2002 study. An additional study in 2005 observed the variant in 6 POAG patients. Further investigation, however, has found the variant to be a non-disease causing polymorphism.1
19KEL-T193MLowUncertainUncertain benign

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.0320692This variant is also known as Kell or K1 or K (capitalized) in the Kell antigen system. K1-negative mothers (carrying no copies of this variant) carrying K1-positive fetuses (heterozygous or homozygous) are at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn. About 9% of caucasians carry one or two copies of K1.1
20RPGRIP1-A547SLowUncertainUncertain benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.232202Probably benign. Implicated in causing autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy, but a later report found the same incidence in controls and concludes it is not causal.1
21TPCN2-G734ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.286166Pigmentation allele.1
22FAH-R341WLowUncertainUncertain benign

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0172895This variant shows pseudodeficiency for production of FAH protein which is connected with hereditary tyrosinemia type I. Pseudodeficiency was confirmed with site-directed mutagenesis and expression in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. The allelic frequency in 516 Norwegian controls was 0.022. 1
23ENPP1-R774CLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0258412Tentatively classified as benign. Initially reported as a recessive cause of infantile arterial calcification, but with no statistical significance. Other variants have been implicated as causal in these cases this variant. 5% allele frequency in caucasians contradicts this variant as having any highly pathogenic effect.1
24BRCA1-R1347GLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.00427589Believed to be a nonpathogenic polymorphism, although Polyphen 2 predicts a damaging effect.1
25GFAP-D295NLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0333767Reported as a nonpathogenic polymorphism.1
26DSPP-R68WLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.143045Probably benign. One report linked this to causing dentinogenesis Imperfecta type II in a large Swedish family, but subsequent publications have observed this is a common variant and conclude it is a nonpathogenic polymorphism.1
27TAS2R38-A49PLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.431121This variant is strongly associated with causing the "taster" phenotype of phenylthiocarbamine (PTC) in a dominant manner.1
28RP1-N985YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.348671Probably benign. One report linked this variant to high triglycerides, but a later paper found a nearby SNP with similar association and suggests that both findings are caused by linkage to an undiscovered causal variant.1
29PCSK9-G670ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.888269This variant is likely benign. 1
30SLC45A2-L374FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.691764Pigmentation allele for non-black hair, and consequently, possible increased susceptibility to malignant melanoma.1
31TAS2R38-I296VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.463376This variant is associated with "taster" status of PTC, along with 49P and 262A. Due to linkage disequilibrium, the independent effects of positions 296 and 262 is unclear. The presence of 49P confers taster status in a dominant fashion, but in the absence of 49P, the presence of 262A/296V is still positively associated with tasting PTC.1
32PKP2-L366PLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.221231This variant is a benign polymorphism. 1
VariantPrioritization scoreAllele
freq
Num of
articles
Zygosity and Prioritization Score Reasons

Gene search

"GENE" or "GENE A123C":

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