huF2750F (23andMe) - GET-Evidence variant report

Variant report for huF2750F (23andMe)

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VariantClinical
Importance
ImpactAllele
freq
Summary
1APOE-C130RHighWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.135392This is generally known as the ApoE4 allele of ApoE and is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's. 20-25% of individuals are heterozygous for this variant, and 1-2% are homozygous. Data from Khachaturian et al. suggests an average 7% of all individuals developed Alzheimer's by the age of 80; when this is split by ApoE4 status: 10% of ApoE4 heterozygotes (3% increased attributable risk), 40% of ApoE4 homozygotes (33% increased attributable risk), and 5% of non-carriers (2% decreased attributable risk). Notably, their model suggests 70-75% of people would eventually develop Alzheimer's by the age of 100 regardless of ApoE4 genotype (and 25-30% are resistant, regardless of genotype), but that ApoE4 variants shift the disease onset to occur significantly earlier (4 years earlier for heterozygous carriers, 13 years for homozygotes).1
2SERPINA1-E366KHighWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0117122This is also called the "Pi Z" or "Z" allele. When homozygous (acting in a recessive manner) this variant is the major cause of severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (95% of cases) which often leads to emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease in adults and children. Heterozygosity for this variant may also be associated with increased rate of lung or liver problems, especially when combined with another variant with reduced function (compound heterozygous).1
3APC-E1317QModerateUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.00883228This rare variant has been hypothesized to increase risk of colon cancer. Later studies have contradicted this, finding no significant enrichment and concluding the variant does not increase risk.1
4PRF1-A91VLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0325339This variant may be associated with a slightly increased susceptibility to some rare blood disorders, in particular autoimmune proliferative disease, if combined with a more severe mutation elsewhere. Most reports lack statistical significance.1
5PIGR-A580VLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.247537In a Japanese study, this variant was associated with an increased risk for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), a rare disease. The chances of having this disease, even with this variant, is less than 0.1%.1
6MTRR-I49MLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.451199This common variant (HapMap allele frequency of 31.3%) in a protein involved in folate (B9) and cobalamin (B12) metabolism and is often reported as "MTRR I22M" (an alternative transcript position). Mothers homozygous for this variant are associated with having around a increased chance of a child with Down syndrome (risk of 0.4%, average risk in population is 0.25%). Notably, age plays a far larger role in the rate of Down syndrome (risk is 4.5% for a mother 45-years-of-age), and it is unknown how this variant may combine with the effect of age. There are conflicting reports associating this variant with incidence of neural tube defects, possibly when combined with MTHFR A222V.1
7RNASEL-R462QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.278026Associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in individuals who already have a family history of prostate cancer, but studies have been unable to replicate this finding in sporadic (non-familial) prostate cancer cases.1
8POLG-Q1236HLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0581893Generally a nonpathogenic polymorphism, but may have a modifier effect that increases severity when combined in cis with other pathogenic variants.1
9WFS1-R611HLowUncertainUncertain not reviewed

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.400446This nonsynonymous SNP is associated with Wolfram Syndrome (known as DIDMOAD), which is characterized by early-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness) and to adult Type Two Diabetes Mellitus. The WFS1 gene maps to chromosome 4p16.3. The variant has been shown to be statistically associated with type II diabetes in six UK studies and one study of Ashkenazi Jews (Sandhu, M., et al., Minton et al.).1
10SP110-L425SLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.863357This variant is associated with a slightly increased risk of tuberculosis. It is unclear whether it is itself causal, or in linkage disequilibrium with some other causal variant that has a stronger effect.1
11CLEC7A-Y238XLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0632088This variant has been found to impair homan mucosal antifungal defense and was implicated in vulvovaginal candidiasis and mucocutaneous infections in a Dutch family.1
12H6PD-R453QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.308886This common variant may have a small pathogenic effect by contributing to cortisone reductase deficiency (a rare abnormality) when homozygous and combined with a serious pathogenic variant. The same authors have tested and ruled out a contribution to polycystic ovary syndrome (similar phenotype, more common disease).1
13TP53-P72RLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.627743This is a common variant was first reported as a polymorphism. It has since had mixed associations with cancer: Storey et al. conclude a 7x *increased* risk of HPV cancer for homozygotes vs hets, but Jones et al. find a 1.98x *decreased* risk for colorectal cancer. This variant may have significant impact on particular cancers, but it is unclear what effect it has on the overall burden of cancer.1
14BRCA2-N372HLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.23656This is a common variant of BRCA2 (HapMap allele frequency of 23%). The variant is weakly associated with an increased chance of breast cancer, and zygosity of the variant is associated with sex of children: male children are more likely to be homozygous for this variant, female children are more likely to be heterozygous.1
15TPMT-Y240CLowWell-establishedWell-established pharmacogenetic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0461825Alone, this variant is known as TPMT*3C -- but often, especially in Caucasians, it is found together with another nonsynonymous variant (A154T) to produce the TPMT*3A variant. Both variants are associated with loss of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, although *3C is milder than *3A. Inability to metabolize thiopurine drugs can lead to severe adverse reactions. Heterozygotes may be advised to take a reduced dosage due to reduced metabolism of the drug.1
16TPMT-A154TLowLikelyLikely pharmacogenetic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0280774Usually this variant is found in combination Y240C, forming the TPMT*3A variant. When alone, this variant produces the *3B variant. Both variants are associated with loss of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity. Inability to metabolize thiopurine drugs can lead to severe adverse reactions. Heterozygotes may be advised to take a reduced dosage due to reduced metabolism of the drug.1
17rs1544410LowUncertainUncertain pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.351562rs1544410 is a Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) single nucleotide polymorphism. It is unlikely that it has functional significance because it is located in an intron (Liu et. al.), but it is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs731236 (Dvornyk et al), which is located in an exon. 1
18FUT2-W154XModerateWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Homozygous
0.490519This recessive protective variant confers resistance to norovirus (which causes stomach flu). 20% of Caucasians and Africans are homozygous for this variant and are "non-secretors": they do not express ABO blood type antigens in their saliva or mucosal surfaces. Most strains of norovirus bind to these antigens in the gut, and so this non-secretor status confers almost total resistantance to most types of norovirus. There are notable exceptions, some strains of norovirus bind a different target and are equally infectious for secretors and non-secretors.1
19PRNP-M129VLowWell-establishedWell-established protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.339561This variant is associated with some protective effects for prion disease -- individuals homozygous for this variant are less susceptible to Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and Papua New Guinea individuals heterozygotes at this site are less susceptible to kuru. 1
20KCNJ11-K23ELowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.738148This variant is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this variant has additive effects, or acts in a dominant or recessive manner. Assuming diabetes has a lifetime risk of 36%, we estimate a decreased risk of around 1-2% per copy of this variant.1
21TOR1A-D216HLowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.102993This SNP has been shown to be benign and play a protective role against Dystonia. 1
22MTR-D919GLowUncertainUncertain protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.217234This variant was weakly associated with a protective effect vs. colorectal cancer, but only in individuals with low alcohol consumption. 1
23TYR-R402QLowWell-establishedWell-established benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.204964This is a frequent pigmentation polymorphism in Europeans that affects function of the Tyrosinase gene. It is associated with blue instead of green eyes and sun sensitivity. For the most part this variant is benign, but many individuals with ocular albinism (which affects only the eyes) carry this variant along with another more severe variant in the same gene.1
24ARSA-N350SLowWell-establishedWell-established benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.183199This common variant (HapMap 24.1% allele frequency) causes a loss of a glycosylation site (affecting the size of the protein when studied with gel electrophoresis) but does not affect enzyme activity or stability.1
25FBN2-S2580LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.0779885Probably benign -- initially associated with congenital contractual arachnodactyly, but later reports classify it as a nonpathogenic polymorphism.1
26RPGRIP1-A547SLowUncertainUncertain benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.232202Probably benign. Implicated in causing autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy, but a later report found the same incidence in controls and concludes it is not causal.1
27PCCA-I475VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0377394Reported as a polymorphism, tentatively presumed benign.1
28RP1-N985YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.348671Probably benign. One report linked this variant to high triglycerides, but a later paper found a nearby SNP with similar association and suggests that both findings are caused by linkage to an undiscovered causal variant.1
29PCSK9-G670ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.888269This variant is likely benign. 1
30APOB-Y1422CLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.999628This position is almost certainly an error in the HG18 reference sequence. 1
31ABCC11-G180RLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0976947This variant is associated with dry type ear wax (a benign trait) in a recessive manner.1
32SLC45A2-L374FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.691764Pigmentation allele for non-black hair, and consequently, possible increased susceptibility to malignant melanoma.1
33TAS2R38-I296VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.463376This variant is associated with "taster" status of PTC, along with 49P and 262A. Due to linkage disequilibrium, the independent effects of positions 296 and 262 is unclear. The presence of 49P confers taster status in a dominant fashion, but in the absence of 49P, the presence of 262A/296V is still positively associated with tasting PTC.1
34TAS2R38-A49PLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.431121This variant is strongly associated with causing the "taster" phenotype of phenylthiocarbamine (PTC) in a dominant manner.1
VariantPrioritization scoreAllele
freq
Num of
articles
Zygosity and Prioritization Score Reasons

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"GENE" or "GENE A123C":

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