hu024B5D (victoria vanzandt-southwell) - GET-Evidence variant report

Variant report for hu024B5D (victoria vanzandt-southwell)

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1FLG-R501XModerateWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0133854Causes ichthyosis vulgaris in a recessive manner (sometimes homozygously, and sometimes compound heterozygously combined with another deleterious variant in this gene). Heterozygous carriers may be very prone to atopic dermatitis (a type of eczema) with moderately high penetrance (30-50% of carriers having symptoms according to Palmer et al.).1
2COL9A3-R103WModerateLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.0480573Carriers of this collagen variant are associated with having a significantly increased risk of lumbar disc disease (~11% total risk compared to a typical risk of 4%). 1
3C3-R102GModerateLikelyLikely pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.152073This variant (also called C3F) is common in Europeans (10.2% allele frequency), and is associated with age-related macular degeneration. In the US, 1.5% of adults over 40 have the disease, but the incidence increases strongly with age (>15% in women over 80). Assuming an average lifetime risk of ~10%, heterozygous individuals have a ~13% risk and homozygous have ~20%.1
4APC-E1317QModerateUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.00883228This rare variant has been hypothesized to increase risk of colon cancer. Later studies have contradicted this, finding no significant enrichment and concluding the variant does not increase risk.1
5HFE-C282YLowWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0494516This variant is associated with hereditary haemochromatosis, 80% of patients with that disease are homozygous for this variant. However, the penetrance is low, in Beutler et al. they note that only 1 of their 158 homozygotes met criteria for diagnosis with the condition.1
6COL4A1-Q1334HLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Homozygous
0.324689This common variant has been associated with arterial stiffness and, in Japanese, a small increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI, a.k.a. heart attack). This last observation supported a dominant effect for this variant and, assuming a lifetime risk of 15% for MI, we estimate carriers have an additional risk of 0.5-3%.1
7MTRR-I49MLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Homozygous
0.451199This common variant (HapMap allele frequency of 31.3%) in a protein involved in folate (B9) and cobalamin (B12) metabolism and is often reported as "MTRR I22M" (an alternative transcript position). Mothers homozygous for this variant are associated with having around a increased chance of a child with Down syndrome (risk of 0.4%, average risk in population is 0.25%). Notably, age plays a far larger role in the rate of Down syndrome (risk is 4.5% for a mother 45-years-of-age), and it is unknown how this variant may combine with the effect of age. There are conflicting reports associating this variant with incidence of neural tube defects, possibly when combined with MTHFR A222V.1
8rs5186LowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.214878This common noncoding genetic variant has an allele frequency of ~30% and is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. If ~25% of non-carriers have hypertension, Bonnardeaux et al's data predict ~4% increased risk of hypertension per copy of this variant. This SNP is in the 3' noncoding region of the AGTR1 transcript (angiotensin II type 1 receptor), also known as AT2R1 or AT1R, which is a target of hypertension drugs.1
9TGFB1-R25PLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0488858This variant in a growth factor gene is associated with variation in TGFB1 levels; this has been associated with various pathogenic and some protective effects, including: more hepatic fibrosis progression in hep C patients, lower risk of cleft palate, anticorrelation with longevity, higher risk of myocardial infarction and lower risk of hypertension.1
10RNASEL-R462QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.278026Associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in individuals who already have a family history of prostate cancer, but studies have been unable to replicate this finding in sporadic (non-familial) prostate cancer cases.1
11ELAC2-S217LLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.273471Reported to be associated with increased susceptibility to prostate cancer, but later studies weaken the hypothesis. Xu et al.'s meta-analysis concludes that there is a small but significant increased risk (OR = 1.13). Assuming a lifetime risk of 16% for prostate cancer we calculate this leads to an increased risk of ~1.5% (17.5% total).1
12TP53-P72RLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.627743This is a common variant was first reported as a polymorphism. It has since had mixed associations with cancer: Storey et al. conclude a 7x *increased* risk of HPV cancer for homozygotes vs hets, but Jones et al. find a 1.98x *decreased* risk for colorectal cancer. This variant may have significant impact on particular cancers, but it is unclear what effect it has on the overall burden of cancer.1
13SP110-L425SLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.863357This variant is associated with a slightly increased risk of tuberculosis. It is unclear whether it is itself causal, or in linkage disequilibrium with some other causal variant that has a stronger effect.1
14WFS1-R611HLowUncertainUncertain not reviewed

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.400446This nonsynonymous SNP is associated with Wolfram Syndrome (known as DIDMOAD), which is characterized by early-onset non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, optic atrophy, and deafness) and to adult Type Two Diabetes Mellitus. The WFS1 gene maps to chromosome 4p16.3. The variant has been shown to be statistically associated with type II diabetes in six UK studies and one study of Ashkenazi Jews (Sandhu, M., et al., Minton et al.).1
15TPMT-Y240CLowWell-establishedWell-established pharmacogenetic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.0461825Alone, this variant is known as TPMT*3C -- but often, especially in Caucasians, it is found together with another nonsynonymous variant (A154T) to produce the TPMT*3A variant. Both variants are associated with loss of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, although *3C is milder than *3A. Inability to metabolize thiopurine drugs can lead to severe adverse reactions. Heterozygotes may be advised to take a reduced dosage due to reduced metabolism of the drug.1
16TPMT-A154TLowLikelyLikely pharmacogenetic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0280774Usually this variant is found in combination Y240C, forming the TPMT*3A variant. When alone, this variant produces the *3B variant. Both variants are associated with loss of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity. Inability to metabolize thiopurine drugs can lead to severe adverse reactions. Heterozygotes may be advised to take a reduced dosage due to reduced metabolism of the drug.1
17rs1544410LowUncertainUncertain pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Homozygous
0.351562rs1544410 is a Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) single nucleotide polymorphism. It is unlikely that it has functional significance because it is located in an intron (Liu et. al.), but it is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs731236 (Dvornyk et al), which is located in an exon. 1
18FUT2-W154XModerateWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.490519This recessive protective variant confers resistance to norovirus (which causes stomach flu). 20% of Caucasians and Africans are homozygous for this variant and are "non-secretors": they do not express ABO blood type antigens in their saliva or mucosal surfaces. Most strains of norovirus bind to these antigens in the gut, and so this non-secretor status confers almost total resistantance to most types of norovirus. There are notable exceptions, some strains of norovirus bind a different target and are equally infectious for secretors and non-secretors.1
19PRNP-M129VLowWell-establishedWell-established protective

Complex/Other, Homozygous
0.339561This variant is associated with some protective effects for prion disease -- individuals homozygous for this variant are less susceptible to Creutzfeldt-Jakob, and Papua New Guinea individuals heterozygotes at this site are less susceptible to kuru. 1
20NPC1-H215RLowLikelyLikely protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.295687This variant is associated with a reduced risk of obesity, with an additive effect of -0.084 BMI per allele (an average of 0.54 pounds less, per allele, in a 5'6" individual). 1
21KCNJ11-K23ELowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.738148This variant is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this variant has additive effects, or acts in a dominant or recessive manner. Assuming diabetes has a lifetime risk of 36%, we estimate a decreased risk of around 1-2% per copy of this variant.1
22IL7R-T244ILowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.210169The reference genome variant for this allele has been associated with a slight increased risk of multiple sclerosis. Thus, this variant can be treated as a "protective" variant -- carriers of this variant are slightly less likely to have MS. Because the disease is rare and the effect of this variant is not very strong, the absolute decreased risk for carriers of this variant is less than .05% (less than 1 in 2000).1
23MTR-D919GLowUncertainUncertain protective

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.217234This variant was weakly associated with a protective effect vs. colorectal cancer, but only in individuals with low alcohol consumption. 1
24RPGRIP1-A547SLowUncertainUncertain benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.232202Probably benign. Implicated in causing autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy, but a later report found the same incidence in controls and concludes it is not causal.1
25LOXL1-R141LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.255899Associated with exfoliative glaucoma & syndrome (XFG & XFS) in various populations, but with contradicting results (protective in Caucasians, pathogenic in Japanese). Based on this it seems the variation itself -- although it affects protein structure -- is not itself causing disease. Instead it is likely associated with other nearby causal variants. As such, it is evaluated as benign by GET-Evidence (which focuses on reporting causal variants). See detailed variant report for disease risk associations.1
26CD19-R514HLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0482432Presumed benign.1
27PCCA-I475VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0377394Reported as a polymorphism, tentatively presumed benign.1
28BRCA1-Q356RLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.0462911One common variant associated this variant with an increased risk of breast cancer, but a more recent, larger study found no association.1
29TYR-S192YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.270682This variant is reported to affect skin pigmentation. It is associated with lighter skin in South Asians (OR 4-5) and with a lack of freckles in Europeans (OR 1.3).1
30ABCA4-R943QLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0316044This is a polymorphism in a gene associated with Stargardt disease. Although it has a slight detectable effect in functional study, it is common in control groups and is not believed to have any significant pathogenic effect.1
31SLC45A2-L374FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.691764Pigmentation allele for non-black hair, and consequently, possible increased susceptibility to malignant melanoma.1
32SPTA1-A970DLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0373134This variant, also called alpha-IIa, has been seen frequently in individuals with recessive Hereditary spherocytosis. This appears to be the result of linkage to alpha-LEPRA (a C>T substitution at position -99 of intron 30); A970D is later reported as functionally neutral.1
33PCSK9-G670ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.888269This variant is likely benign. 1
34TPCN2-G734ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.286166Pigmentation allele.1
35NTRK1-G613VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0429448Also called G607V, this variant has been reported as a nonpathogenic polymorphism.1
36PTCH1-P1315LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.29631Common polymorphism, presumed benign.1
VariantPrioritization scoreAllele
Num of
Zygosity and Prioritization Score Reasons

Gene search

"GENE" or "GENE A123C":

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