hu92F252 (genome_Full_20131028233806) - GET-Evidence variant report

Variant report for hu92F252 (genome_Full_20131028233806)

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1APOE-C130RHighWell-establishedWell-established pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.135392This is generally known as the ApoE4 allele of ApoE and is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's. 20-25% of individuals are heterozygous for this variant, and 1-2% are homozygous. Data from Khachaturian et al. suggests an average 7% of all individuals developed Alzheimer's by the age of 80; when this is split by ApoE4 status: 10% of ApoE4 heterozygotes (3% increased attributable risk), 40% of ApoE4 homozygotes (33% increased attributable risk), and 5% of non-carriers (2% decreased attributable risk). Notably, their model suggests 70-75% of people would eventually develop Alzheimer's by the age of 100 regardless of ApoE4 genotype (and 25-30% are resistant, regardless of genotype), but that ApoE4 variants shift the disease onset to occur significantly earlier (4 years earlier for heterozygous carriers, 13 years for homozygotes).1
2COL9A3-R103WModerateLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.0480573Carriers of this collagen variant are associated with having a significantly increased risk of lumbar disc disease (~11% total risk compared to a typical risk of 4%). 1
3C3-R102GModerateLikelyLikely pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.152073This variant (also called C3F) is common in Europeans (10.2% allele frequency), and is associated with age-related macular degeneration. In the US, 1.5% of adults over 40 have the disease, but the incidence increases strongly with age (>15% in women over 80). Assuming an average lifetime risk of ~10%, heterozygous individuals have a ~13% risk and homozygous have ~20%.1
4COL4A1-Q1334HLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.324689This common variant has been associated with arterial stiffness and, in Japanese, a small increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI, a.k.a. heart attack). This last observation supported a dominant effect for this variant and, assuming a lifetime risk of 15% for MI, we estimate carriers have an additional risk of 0.5-3%.1
5MTRR-I49MLowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.451199This common variant (HapMap allele frequency of 31.3%) in a protein involved in folate (B9) and cobalamin (B12) metabolism and is often reported as "MTRR I22M" (an alternative transcript position). Mothers homozygous for this variant are associated with having around a increased chance of a child with Down syndrome (risk of 0.4%, average risk in population is 0.25%). Notably, age plays a far larger role in the rate of Down syndrome (risk is 4.5% for a mother 45-years-of-age), and it is unknown how this variant may combine with the effect of age. There are conflicting reports associating this variant with incidence of neural tube defects, possibly when combined with MTHFR A222V.1
6KRT5-G138ELowLikelyLikely pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0521472This variant is associated with 1.25x increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (common skin cancer, rarely malignant).1
7H6PD-R453QLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Recessive, Homozygous
0.308886This common variant may have a small pathogenic effect by contributing to cortisone reductase deficiency (a rare abnormality) when homozygous and combined with a serious pathogenic variant. The same authors have tested and ruled out a contribution to polycystic ovary syndrome (similar phenotype, more common disease).1
8ELAC2-S217LLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.273471Reported to be associated with increased susceptibility to prostate cancer, but later studies weaken the hypothesis. Xu et al.'s meta-analysis concludes that there is a small but significant increased risk (OR = 1.13). Assuming a lifetime risk of 16% for prostate cancer we calculate this leads to an increased risk of ~1.5% (17.5% total).1
9LRP5-A1330VLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Complex/Other, Heterozygous
0.110367In a study of a UK population this variant was associated with a small increased risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic bone fractures, with each copy of the variant presumed to have an additive effect. A study in Chinese young men failed to find an association with peak bone density. 1
10SP110-L425SLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.863357This variant is associated with a slightly increased risk of tuberculosis. It is unclear whether it is itself causal, or in linkage disequilibrium with some other causal variant that has a stronger effect.1
11TP53-P72RLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.627743This is a common variant was first reported as a polymorphism. It has since had mixed associations with cancer: Storey et al. conclude a 7x *increased* risk of HPV cancer for homozygotes vs hets, but Jones et al. find a 1.98x *decreased* risk for colorectal cancer. This variant may have significant impact on particular cancers, but it is unclear what effect it has on the overall burden of cancer.1
12ELAC2-A541TLowUncertainUncertain pathogenic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0276074This variant is implicated as causing increased susceptibility to prostate cancer. However the variant has always been seen paired with S217L, it is unclear which variant is causal. Evidence is weak for both; one meta-analysis (Severi et al.) concluded that neither variant was pathogenic, a more recent meta-analysis (Xu et al.) found the data to be significant but the odds ratio was not strong and concluded they are "low-penetrance susceptibility markers of prostate cancer".1
13DPYD-M166VHighLikelyLikely pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0778955Associated with DPYD deficiency and poor prognosis for chemotherapy w/ 5-flurorouracil. 1
14rs1544410LowUncertainUncertain pharmacogenetic

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.351562rs1544410 is a Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) single nucleotide polymorphism. It is unlikely that it has functional significance because it is located in an intron (Liu et. al.), but it is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs731236 (Dvornyk et al), which is located in an exon. 1
15FUT2-W154XModerateWell-establishedWell-established protective

Recessive, Homozygous
0.490519This recessive protective variant confers resistance to norovirus (which causes stomach flu). 20% of Caucasians and Africans are homozygous for this variant and are "non-secretors": they do not express ABO blood type antigens in their saliva or mucosal surfaces. Most strains of norovirus bind to these antigens in the gut, and so this non-secretor status confers almost total resistantance to most types of norovirus. There are notable exceptions, some strains of norovirus bind a different target and are equally infectious for secretors and non-secretors.1
16KCNJ11-K23ELowLikelyLikely protective

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.738148This variant is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether this variant has additive effects, or acts in a dominant or recessive manner. Assuming diabetes has a lifetime risk of 36%, we estimate a decreased risk of around 1-2% per copy of this variant.1
17LIG4-A3VLowUncertainUncertain protective

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.035843One report has associated this with a decreased risk of multiple myeloma.1
18ADA-D8NLowLikelyLikely benign

Dominant, Heterozygous
0.0295359This common variant is reported to reduce adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. It has been associated with an increased tendency for non-REM sleep -- more slow wave sleep, less nocturnal wakings, and a stronger negative impact of sleep deprivation. A role for this gene and variant was previously proposed for autism susceptibility, but this is controversial and was not replicated by later studies.1
19OCA2-R419QLowLikelyLikely benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0565161This variant is associated with eye color, as is OCA2 R305W. Individuals with this variant are reported to be more likely to have green/hazel eyes as opposed to blue/gray eyes. Other variants in this gene are associated with oculocutaneous albinism (albinism which involves skin and eyes).1
20TGM1-V518MLowLikelyLikely benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0113425Probably a non-pathogenic polymorphism. It was initially thought to be involved in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, but later authors found the variant in numerous healthy controls.1
21ADA-K80RLowLikelyLikely benign

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.0635806This variant has a 3.5% allele frequency in 1000 genomes data. Although OMIM links this to disease, the paper they reference uses in vitro data to conclude that this is a functionally neutral polymorphism.1
22MLH1-I219VLowUncertainUncertain benign

Dominant, Homozygous
0.239822Computational evidence, functional assays, and case/control studies suggest this variant is probably benign.1
23CYP27A1-P384LLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0177542Probably not pathogenic. Although predicted to be disruptive and treated by some as pathogenic, reports of this variant in cases were all linked with an upstream frameshift variant -- this supports the variant as a nonpathogenic ancestral polymorphism.1
24TYR-S192YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.270682This variant is reported to affect skin pigmentation. It is associated with lighter skin in South Asians (OR 4-5) and with a lack of freckles in Europeans (OR 1.3).1
25APOB-Y1422CLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.999628This position is almost certainly an error in the HG18 reference sequence. 1
26PCSK9-G670ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.888269This variant is likely benign. 1
27ABCC11-G180RLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.0976947This variant is associated with dry type ear wax (a benign trait) in a recessive manner.1
28RP1-N985YLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Heterozygous
0.348671Probably benign. One report linked this variant to high triglycerides, but a later paper found a nearby SNP with similar association and suggests that both findings are caused by linkage to an undiscovered causal variant.1
29SLC45A2-L374FLowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.691764Pigmentation allele for non-black hair, and consequently, possible increased susceptibility to malignant melanoma.1
30GUCY2D-A52SLowUncertainUncertain benign

Recessive, Carrier (Heterozygous)
0.21016One publication suggested that this variant possibly causes Leber's congenital amaurosis in a recessive manner, but the frequency data (36% in 1000 genomes) contradicts any significant pathogenic effect.1
31TPCN2-G734ELowUncertainUncertain benign

Unknown, Homozygous
0.286166Pigmentation allele.1
VariantPrioritization scoreAllele
Num of
Zygosity and Prioritization Score Reasons

Gene search

"GENE" or "GENE A123C":

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