The common P12A polymorphism in PPARG (a target for thiazolidinedione medications) has been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes.We examined whether PPARG P12A affects progression from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes, or responses to preventive interventions (lifestyle, metformin, or troglitazone vs. placebo).This study included 3548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants.We performed Cox regression analysis using genotype at PPARG P12A, intervention, and their interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence. We also genotyped five other PPARG variants implicated in the response to troglitazone and assessed their effect on insulin sensitivity at 1 yr.Consistent with prior cross-sectional studies, P/P homozygotes at PPARG P12A appeared more likely to develop diabetes than alanine carriers (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.57; P=0.07) with no interaction of genotype with intervention. There was a significant interaction of genotype with body mass index and waist circumference (P=0.03 and 0.002, respectively) with the alanine allele conferring less protection in more obese individuals. Neither PPARG P12A nor five other variants significantly affected the impact of troglitazone on insulin sensitivity in 340 participants at 1 yr.The proline allele at PPARG P12A increases risk for diabetes in persons with impaired glucose tolerance, an effect modified by body mass index. In addition, PPARG P12A has little or no effect on the beneficial response to troglitazone.