32 patients with acquired long QT syndrome (in response to drugs) were scanned for variants in five genes implicated in congenital long QT syndrome. Two of the 32 carried this variant, none of 32 controls did. (This not a statistically significant difference.)
35 SNPs in 10 genes were studied for association with noise-associated hearing loss. This variant was found in 5 out of 104 cases of noise-associated hearing loss, and not seen at all in 114 noised-exposed individuals without hearing loss.
The authors report this to have a significance of p = 0.023, which is the p-value obtained by using a two-tailed Fisher’s Exact test. However, they do not correct for the fact that multiple hypotheses were being tested. Bonferroni correction would require p < 0.0014 for a significance equivalent to p = 0.05 when 35 hypotheses are being tested.